A system of multimodal areas in the primate brain


Graziano, M. S. A., Gross, C. G., Taylor, C. S. R., & Moore, T. (2004). A system of multimodal areas in the primate brain. In C. Spence & J. Driver (Ed.), Crossmodal Space and Crossmodal Attention (pp. 51-67) . Oxford University Press.


In this chapter, we suggest that a set of interconnected areas in the primate brain monitors the location and movement of objects near the body and controls startle, flinch and defensive responses. This hypothesized “defensive” system, shown in Fig. 1 in a side view of the monkey brain, includes the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), parietal area 7b, the polysensory zone (PZ) in the precentral gyrus, and the putamen. These brain areas are monosynaptically interconnected (Cavada & Goldman-Rakic, 1989a,b; Cavada & Goldman-Rakic, 1991; Matelli et al., 1986; Mesulam et al., 1977; Parthasarathy et al., 1992; Weber & Yin, 1984). Of the four areas, PZ is closest to the motor output, sending direct projections to the spinal cord (Dum & Strick, 1991).

Last updated on 05/07/2019