Four-dimensional spatial reasoning in humans


Aflalo, T. N., & Graziano, M. S. A. (2008). Four-dimensional spatial reasoning in humans. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Human Perception and Performance , 34 (5), 1066-1077.

Date Published:

2008 Oct




Human subjects practiced navigation in a virtual, computer-generated maze that contained 4 spatial dimensions rather than the usual 3. The subjects were able to learn the spatial geometry of the 4-dimensional maze as measured by their ability to perform path integration, a standard test of spatial ability. They were able to travel down a winding corridor to its end and then point back accurately toward the occluded origin. One interpretation is that the brain substrate for spatial navigation is not a built-in map of the 3-dimensional world. Instead it may be better described as a set of general rules for manipulating spatial information that can be applied with practice to a diversity of spatial frameworks.

Publisher's Version



Alternate Journal:

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform
Last updated on 05/09/2019